Work and Identity: Historical and Cultural Contexts (Identity Studies in the Social Sciences)

Social Identity Theory
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This concerns mainly music not in diaspora, but about diaspora, i.

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It is a challenge to pass this collective memory on to younger generations, and Klein finds that cultural performance in her case, a style of Maltese folk music called Ghana provided a means to enact identity and collective experience through stories of displacement and relocation. Whereas Klein and Roberson's studies concern old migrants meaning that a long time has passed since they left their homeland , other studies focus on new immigrants and the role of music in their new situation. Some studies find that music can enhance trust in the context of danger and disorientation and can have a therapeutic effect for a refugee community Baily and Collyer ; Lewis Additionally, specific sounds, usually from instruments that are played in the homeland, may evoke strong memories and emotions for people living in diaspora Chapman However, this is not a simple process of transmission whereby members passively absorb a collective identity, but it is rather a process of negotiation in which many sources are used to the shape a collective identity.

A number of papers discuss the way music can reproduce or transcend an ethnic community's position in society, which raises questions about politics and the emancipatory potential of music. The study shows how a cultural elite, by redefining a musical genre, drew boundaries between those who belonged to a dominant national culture and those who did not. This study shows the dynamic relationship between a specific music genre and the broader culture.

Both of these studies stress the way that music can be used to subordinate and even discriminate against ethnic groups. There are also studies that stress other aspects of music's stigmatising effects. When people already have a marginalised position in society, their music may be referred to in negative terms by others. Some studies show how particular musical genres, associated with specific groups, can be questioned, especially from a nationalistic perspective Levy ; Piotrowska Bailey's study of a Muslim minority Khalifa who moved from India to the United Kingdom, shows how a group that was originally a disadvantaged minority in its place of origin, due to the caste system, migrated to a context where stigma was attached neither to their profession nor to their music.

It is interesting to note that Bailey also finds that the ethnic group did not use music as a means to maintain their cultural identity. Instead of tracing their roots by connecting to traditional music, they invented hybrid forms of music, entailing a westernisation of the repertoire.

This hybridisation resulted not in the composition of new songs, but in new performance styles including the use of keyboard, electric guitar, bass guitar and percussion. Finally, music can be a means for social mobilisation. Irrespective of the political programme involved, music works to make a specific group visible in the wider society Eyerman ; Klein ; Macias ; Maya Knauer ; Murthy Thus, music can serve a political purpose; it can be part of discrimination against and stigmatisation of an ethnic group, as well as facilitating mobilisation and empowerment of a group and raising issues of social injustice and inequality.

The finding of this research review is that music has an important role in identity formation in diasporic situations. Music can serve both to stabilise and maintain identities and belongings — but also to destabilise them, providing new material and resources for identity formation. A number of studies have examined this, highlighting the importance of context the diasporic situation , space, collective memory and politics. As stressed in the method section, this study has limitations. Only including studies published in English probably reinforces the bias towards the western world; only six of the 31 reviewed articles investigate diasporic communities located outside Europe and North America see Titon a for a broad overview of music genres in all the world's regions.

The choice only to include journal articles, together with the fact that the selected database primarily indexes social and behavioural sciences, implies that subfields of relevance may be poorly covered.

What is CULTURAL IDENTITY? What does CULTURAL IDENTITY mean? CULTURAL IDENTITY meaning & explanation

This can be due to the fact that some research traditions mainly publish in the form of monographs and book chapters, or because potentially relevant studies are not indexed as social or behavioural sciences and hence are not part of the selected database. To some extent this is the case for the subfields of musicology and ethnomusicology, which implies that important contributions may not have been covered.

In order to check whether the findings are in line with recent discussions in ethnomusicology, I have reviewed the latest volumes of two key journals: Ethnomusiciology journal of the Society of Ethnomusicology and Ethnomusicology Forum journal of the British Forum for Ethnomusicology. This review finds a number of studies that are relevant but are not covered in the systematic literature review. However, none of these articles run contrary to the findings; indeed they rather support and deepen them. Memory : Sheleman discusses music as a site of memory, where historical narratives are shaped, something that is also stressed by Cidra ; Kyker investigates how transnational identities are produced and negotiated through musical listening, with songs making it possible for listeners to symbolically relocate themselves within the social setting of a remembered home.

The exploratory character of this review also needs to be stressed; its aim is to glean broad insights from the research, map some trends, and discuss general aspects of studies of music's role in identity formation. There may be studies that go more deeply into the issues or that discuss other areas than the four found here, but what the reviewed literature has revealed is still important and provides important insights into the diverse and complex function of music in diasporic settings. On the basis of the reviewed literature, three aspects need to be discussed in more depth: differentiation the role of gender , methodology the justification of generalisation , and the future the performative role of diasporic consciousness and its new conditions.

Many of the reviewed papers discuss power, inequality, and marginalisation. Focusing on the social position of a diasporic community, they analyse the role of class and ethnic identity in the construction of marginalisation and stigmatisation. Class is especially emphasised in the discussion on ethnicity and music, while age is addressed in some studies, especially in the context of generational change. For example, most of the studied cases are populated by men.

Some of the reviewed literature shows that music and dance often function to reproduce and strengthen gender identities and relations, i. However, music does not only contribute to the enculturation of gendered identities, it also can challenge them, as well as their practices and relations. For example, Bennett describes how young Asian women are given the opportunity to become community DJs and creatively shape tracks in which Bhangra music is mixed with contemporary music, such as rap and house, and shows that this position influences their relations and identities.

Thus, music creates a space that can stabilise and destabilise established gender identities, often both at the same time. An important area for future studies is thus to investigate gendered aspects of the stabilisation and transformation of social identities.

In This Article

Identity Studies in the Social Sciences Historical and Cultural Contexts What are the cultural and structural differences with regard the world of work across. 16 results Identity brings together work on core social categories such as social class, and personal identities are lived and performed in spaces and contexts such as and emerging social and cultural forms and the impacts of globalization.

Ethnography is the most common method; it is highly relevant because there is no other way to understand the role of music in diaspora than to investigate it in its real life context, and this methodological approach provides a rich, detailed, and complex understanding Gobo The reviewed studies show the manifold functions of music, the decisive role of context and the ongoing processes of essentialisation and hybridisation of social identities and cultural belongings.

Some studies are limited to only drawing conclusions about the studied case, whereas others also draw more general conclusions. In both quantitative and qualitative studies it is always necessary to methodologically justify the making of generalisations, to explain how and to what extent results are transferable to cases and contexts other than the one studied.

Examples of In-groups – Out-groups

None of the reviewed literature, however, includes any discussion of how to gain more general knowledge from particular cases. This is therefore an important aspect to discuss in future studies. This is because music provides cultural resources and expressive practices that, consciously or unconsciously, are used by individuals and groups to understand themselves and their place in the world, to structure social relations, to shape identities, and to develop actions.

Music therefore works performatively: the past is not only remembered but also shaped; the diasporic consciousness is at once a resource and a restriction in the social positioning and orientation of groups, and thus has consequences for the future. However, the reviewed studies primarily focus on the current situation and explain the music's role in the present, giving only limited attention to the consequences of this temporary diasporic consciousness. This may partly be a result of the methodological approach chosen, which stresses particular cases and their settings, and rarely investigates the wider implications for the surroundings.

In a world characterised by migration, transnational networks, and global flows, there is likely to be a growing need for knowledge about identity formation in diaspora, including the role of music in this process. Increasing transnational migration makes it likely that new diasporic communities will be formed, and old ones renewed; immigrants and refugees will have to develop political and cultural strategies to navigate in their new contexts. Also, many host countries that previously welcomed cultural diversity have now initiated political and public discussions on the need for assimilation strategies and less inclusive citizenship for immigrants.

This reorientation in migration policies and understandings of integration constitutes a partly new context for the shaping and negotiation of diasporic consciousness. Changes in context provide new opportunities and restrictions for identity formation, and music will continue to be one important way for immigrants and refugees to maintain, negotiate and develop their identities in their new setting.

This article was written as part of the multidisciplinary project Music, identity and multiculturalism. The author remains however solely responsible for the arguments made in the article. Sociological Abstracts indexes 1, serial journals in the social and behavioural sciences. The selection policy classifies journals into three categories. All substantive articles appearing in these journals are abstracted and indexed. More than 50 per cent of the substantive articles appearing in these journals are selected for coverage. Selective sources are journals from related social sciences that occasionally publish works of sociological relevance. Less than 50 per cent of the substantive articles appearing in these journals are covered.

The indexed journals have geographically broad coverage and scope, and the list of their titles runs from Aboriginal Linguistics to Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research. There are, however, some central journals within the fields of musicology and ethnomusicology that it does not cover e. His main area of interest is environmental, urban and multicultural issues.

In This Article

Major recent publications are Multiculturalism. Social phenomenon and political challenge R. Lidskog and F. Deniz, Liber, , in Swedish ; Transboundary risk governance R. Lidskog, L. Soneryd and Y. Uggla, Earthscan, ; Governing the air: the dynamics of science, policy, and citizen interaction R. Lidskog and G.

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Rolf Lidskog Search for more papers by this author. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract In many countries, multicultural citizenship has run into difficulties.

Introduction Ethnic identify formation among immigrants is a recurrent theme within broader debates on issues such as migration, integration, and social cohesion.

Music, cultural identity and diaspora Before presenting the study the literature review , it is necessary to present some more thoughts about the topic of this study. Music and identity Music is a human universal, but its meaning is not Titon b. What counts as diaspora? Study limitations Like all research designs, this study has its limitations. Results: context, space, memory and politics The analysis of the findings is structured around four themes: context the diasporic situation , space, collective memory historical consciousness , and politics subordination or resistance.

Discussion: gender, generalisation and the future The finding of this research review is that music has an important role in identity formation in diasporic situations. Gender Many of the reviewed papers discuss power, inequality, and marginalisation. Acknowledgements This article was written as part of the multidisciplinary project Music, identity and multiculturalism.

Anthias, F. Ethnic and Racial Studies , 24 4 , — Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Wiley Online Library Google Scholar. Citing Literature. Volume 66 , Issue March—June Pages References Related Information.