They allowed Germany to keep only a small army.
In addition, Germany had to cede parts of its territory. France gained Alsace-Lorraine and the coal mines in the Saar region.
Germany was allowed to keep the Rhineland, but without an army. In the east, Germany lost another part of its territory. This became part of Poland, which also gained land from Russia and Austria-Hungary. Finally, Germany lost its colonies in Africa and Asia. The Germans felt that they should not have been blamed for the war. The loss of territory was considered extremely humiliating.
Moreover, the sky-high reparations caused great poverty throughout the country. Her birth name was Hermine Santrouschitz and she came here from Vienna, the capital of Austria. She was 11 years old when her parents sent her to the Netherlands to recover from tuberculosis and malnutrition. She was taken in by a foster family in Leiden. She felt very much at home and with the consent of her biological parents, she stayed on in the Netherlands. It took a lot of effort to overcome the hardships of the war.
When there was a famine in Vienna, foster families in England, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands took in hungry and sick children. The people who stayed behind received help from American aid organisations. The programme consisted of a list of 25 points. A few important points:. He wrote it in prison, where he was serving a sentence for a failed coup he attempted in In Mein Kampf , Hitler wrote about his ideology and presented himself as the leader of the extreme right.
He talked about his life and his youth, his 'conversion' to antisemitism the hatred of Jews and his time as a soldier in the First World War. He raged against the Treaty of Versailles and the reparations that Germany had to pay because of the Treaty. He did not believe in parliamentary democracy. Mein Kampf is full of racist ideas and hatred of Jews and communists. In Mein Kampf , Hitler also wrote a lot about the future of Germany.
He wanted to expand the German territory in Eastern Europe and to throw the Jews out of Germany, since he believed they threatened the survival of the German people.
Although Mein Kampf does not refer to the later mass murder of Jews during the Second World War the Holocaust , it does show that he had already developed a hatred of Jews at this time. She weighed over 8 pounds and was 54 cm long. Margot was taken to see her the next day and very happy with the arrival of her baby sister.
Hugo Sperrle, with the brilliant Lt. No new states had been admitted since , when Arizona and New Mexico were added to the Union. The republic devolved substantial autonomy to the Basque Country and to Catalonia. Over 40 million casualties resulted, including approximately 20 million military and civilian deaths. The press played on the theme that the Guernica bombing was something new, a unique event in the war that foreshadowed an escalation of terror. Gems and jewels were to figure among his many interests and he was a certified gemologist and was at one time President of Polar Star Diamonds Ltd and President of Diamori Ltd specializing in fine jewels.
Ten days later, Anne and her mother Edith were allowed to go home. It was a pleasant time for Anne and Margot. It was a neighbourhood with lots of children and almost every day, friends came over to play with Margot. Anne could often be found in the sandbox in the garden. She was still too young to be allowed out of the garden.
Margot was allowed to leave the garden, though, and she often played in the street with her friends. That same evening, the Nazis held a torchlight procession through Berlin. Despite the impressive propaganda images Goebbels would produce later, not all Germans were impressed. Many of them did not expect Hitler to last very long at all. After his appointment, Hitler was still no autocrat. The other ministers came from other right-wing parties.
enter Nonetheless, Hitler managed to get his people appointed to important positions. Anne Frank came to Amsterdam in February Her father Otto had been living there for over six months. He had left Germany for the Netherlands in July to set up his company Opekta. Edith joined him in September and started looking for a house. Meanwhile, Anne and her sister Margot stayed with their grandmother in Aachen.
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Margot came to Amsterdam in December and Anne followed in February. Margot started school in January and Anne in April. She learned Dutch quickly and had no trouble making new friends. She was very popular because she always had ideas about the games they could play or the things they could get up to. In the morning of 7 March , German troops occupied the Rhineland, a part of Germany that bordered on France. According to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was not allowed to station an army there.
Hitler took a big risk, as he did not know how the Allies would react. He only deployed 3, soldiers.
He had police officers march along to increase the visual impact. They had all been ordered to withdraw if foreign countries were to intervene. But nothing happened. Other countries took hardly any countermeasures. Germany's old enemies, France and England, were busy dealing with domestic problems of their own and did not want to get involved in another war. Others felt that Germany was entitled to reclaim the Rhineland. The area had always been German until after the First World War, and Hitler's predecessors had wanted it back as well.
The gamble paid off for Hitler.
It encouraged him to try to break other international agreements with impunity. He was now able to reposition his troops along the French border. In Germany, his popularity was growing because he had erased the 'disgrace' of the Treaty of Versailles. Once again, Germany was a force to be reckoned with.
They humiliated Jews in parades, abused them and put them in concentration camps. They also destroyed Jewish property. Such violent attacks on Jews are called pogroms.
Because of the many broken windows, this particular pogrom is called the Kristallnacht , the Night of Broken Glass. Synagogues were set on fire and the fire department was not allowed to put the fires out.